Pregnancy and Children

Infertility Terms and Definitions

Infertility Terms and Definitions     Infertility Terms and Definitions

Below you will find a list of the most commonly used words and their definitions relating to fertility and infertility treatment.

Terms and Definitions

The following terms and definitions have been been adapted from the links listed at the bottom of this page.

adhesions --- rubbery or filmy bands of scar tissue often caused by a previous infection, surgery or endometriosis that attach to the surface of reproductive organs and the bowels or the bladder. Adhesions to or around the fallopian tubes and ovaries may block a tube and prevent an egg (oocyte) from meeting with a sperm.

allergen — a foreign substance to the body's immune system that may cause an allergic reaction.

allergies — disorders that involve an immune response in the body. Allergies are reactions to allergens such as plant pollen, other grasses and weeds, certain foods, rubber latex, insect bites, or certain drugs.

alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) — AFP is protein made by the fetus’ liver, in the fetal gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the yolk sac. During pregnancy, AFP crosses into the mother's blood. The level of AFP in the mother's blood can be measured to screen for disorders such as neural tube defects and Down syndrome. The mother’s AFP levels tend to be high with neural tube defects such as anencephaly and Spina bifida, and low with Down syndrome.

alpha-fetoprotein screening — This blood test measures the levels of a substance called alpha-fetoprotein in the mother's blood. Abnormal levels can indicate a brain or spinal cord defect, the presence of twins, a miscalculated due date, or an increased risk of Down syndrome.

alveoli cells — tiny glands in the breast that produce milk.

amenorrhea --- the absence of menstruation

amniocentesis — If necessary, this test is performed between 15 and 20 weeks of pregnancy and can indicate chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, or genetic disorders such as Tay Sachs disease, sickle cell disease, cystic fibrosis, and others. It also can detect the baby's sex and risk of spina bifida (a condition in which the brain or spine do not develop properly).

amniotic fluid — clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is contained in the amniotic sac.

amniotic sac — During pregnancy, the amniotic sac is formed within the uterus and encloses the fetus. This sac bursts normally during the birthing process, releasing the amniotic fluid. A popular term for the amniotic sac with the amniotic fluid is the bag of waters.

amputation — removal of part or all of a body part, except for organs in the body. It usually takes place during surgery in a hospital operating room. It is done because of injury to the body part or problems from diabetes, hardening of the arteries, or any other illness that impairs blood circulation. It is also done to prevent the spread of bone cancer. Many amputees are able to be fitted with an artificial limb.

anemia — when the amount of red blood cells or hemoglobin (the substance in the blood that carries oxygen to organs) becomes reduced, causing fatigue that can be severe.

aneurysm — a thin or weak spot in an artery that balloons out and can burst.

angina — a recurring pain or discomfort in the chest that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood. It is a common symptom of coronary heart disease, which occurs when vessels that carry blood to the heart become narrowed and blocked due to atherosclerosis. Angina feels like a pressing or squeezing pain, usually in the chest under the breast bone, but sometimes in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaws, or back. Angina is usually is brought on by exertion, and relieved within a few minutes by resting or by taking prescribed angina medicine.

anorexia nervosa — an eating disorder caused by a person having a distorted body image and not consuming the appropriate calorie intake resulting in severe weight loss.

anovulation — absence of ovulation.

antibiotics — drugs used to fight many infections caused by bacteria. Some antibiotics are effective against only certain types of bacteria; others can effectively fight a wide range of bacteria. Antibiotics do not work against viral infections.

antibodies — proteins made by certain white blood cells in response to a foreign substance (antigen). Antibodies neutralize or destroy antigens.

antidepressants — a name for a category of medications used to treat depression.

antihistamines — drugs that are used to prevent or relieve the symptoms of hay fever and other allergies by preventing the action of a substance called histamine, which is produced by the body. Histamine can cause itching, sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, and sometimes can make breathing difficult. Some of these drugs are also used to prevent motion sickness, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Since they may cause drowsiness as a side effect, some of them may be used to help people go to sleep.

antimetabolites — anticancer drugs that can stop or slow down biochemical reactions in cells.

antisperm antibodies --- An immune system response that causes the body to attack and kill off sperm. Both men and women can develop antisperm antibodies.

anxiety disorder — serious medical illness that fills people's lives with anxiety and fear. Some anxiety disorders include panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), specific phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder.

apnea — temporary interruption or cessation of breathing.

areola — the dark-colored skin on the breast that surrounds the nipple.

ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) --- any procedure where eggs are surgically removed from a woman’s ovaries and combined with sperm to assist a woman in getting pregnant. ART procedures include in vitro fertilization (IVF), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), and zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT).

ART cycle --- the process includes 1) an ART procedure, 2) ovarian stimulation, or 3) frozen embryos thawed for transfer into a woman. This process begins when a woman starts fertility medications or has her ovaries monitored for follicle production.

arteries — blood vessels that carry oxygen and blood to the heart, brain and other parts of the body.

artherosclerosis — disease when fatty deposits clog the walls of the arteries.

arthritis — swelling, redness, heat and pain of the joints. There are over 100 types of arthritis.

artificial insemination --- prepared or washed sperm is placed into the uterus using a specialized catheter. Also referred to as IUI (Intrauterine Insemination).

asthenospermia --- poor motility of sperm.

asthma — a chronic disease of the lungs. Symptoms include cough, wheezing, a tight feeling in the chest, and trouble breathing.

atherosclerosis — a disease in which fatty material is deposited on the wall of the arteries. This fatty material causes the arteries to become narrow and it eventually restricts blood flow.

autoimmune — an immune response by the body against one of its own tissues, cells, or molecules.

autoimmune disease — disease caused by an immune response against foreign substances in the tissues of one's own body.

autologous endometrial co culture --- growth of embryos on top of a woman’s own endometrial (womb) cells.

azoospermia --- The complete absence of sperm from the semen.

bacteria — microorganisms that can cause infections.

bacterial vaginosis (BV) — the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age, which happens when the normal bacteria (germs) in the vagina get out of balance, such as from douching or from sexual contact. Symptoms include vaginal discharge that can be white, gray, or thin and have an odor; burning or pain when urinating; or itching around the outside of the vagina. There also may be no symptoms.

basal body temperature (BBT): The core body temperature. Normal body temperatures can range from 96°F to 98°F but will increase by half a degree to one full degree when a woman ovulates. Women can measure their basal body temperature daily to determine when they are ovulating.

benign — noncancerous

beta-blockers — a type of medication that reduces nerve impulses to the heart and blood vessels. This makes the heart beat slower and with less force. Blood pressure drops and the heart works less hard.

bile — a brown liquid made by the liver. It contains some substances that break up fat for digestion, while other substances are waste products.

bilirubin — when the hemoglobin in a person's blood breaks down, causing a yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. It is a temporary condition in newborn infants.

binge eating disorder — an eating disorder caused by a person being unable to control the need to overeat.

biopsy — removal of a small piece of tissue for testing or examination under a microscope.

birth center — A special place for women to give birth. They have all the required equipment for birthing, but are specially designed for a woman, her partner, and family. Birth centers may be free standing (separate from a hospital) or located within a hospital.

bladder — the organ in the human body that stores urine. It is found in the lower part of the abdomen.

blastocyst --- a more developed embryo, often referred to as a pre implantation embryo. It begins to implant into the uterine lining six to seven days after fertilization.

blood — fluid in the body made up of plasma, red and white blood cells, and platelets. Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to and waste materials away from all body tissues. In the breast, blood nourishes the breast tissue and provides nutrients needed for milk production.

bloodtransfusion — the transfer of blood or blood products from one person (donor) into another person's bloodstream (recipient). Most times, it is done to replace blood cells or blood products lost through severe bleeding. Blood can be given from two sources, your own blood (autologous blood) or from someone else (donor blood).

body image — how a person feels about how she or he looks.

bowels — also known as the intestine, which is a long tube-like organ in the human body that completes digestion or the breaking down of food. The small bowel is the small intestine and the large bowel is the large intestine.

breast shell — a round plastic shell that fits around the breast. It is used to correct inverted or flat nipples. Also referred to as breast shield or milk cup.

bromocriptine --- a medication used to treat abnormally high prolactin which is a pituitary hormone responsible for breast milk production that may result in infertility and amenorrhea. Prolactin may be secreted in higher amounts due to pituitary brain tumors, chest wall trauma, breast implants or as a side effect of various medications.

bronchitis — inflammation of the bronchi, airways in the lungs.

bulimia nervosa — an eating disorder caused by a person consuming an extreme amount of food all at once followed by self-induced vomiting or other purging.

cancer — a group of diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control. Cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body.

candida — a fungus, called Candida albicans, that causes yeast infections like thrush in the mouth and throat, and in intestines and other parts of the body.

cardiovascular diseases — disease of the heart and blood vessels.

cataplexy — a sudden loss of motor tone and strength.

cataracts — cloudy or thick areas in the lens of the eye.

celiac disease — a digestive disease that damages the small intestine and interferes with absorption of nutrients from food. When people with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine.

central agonists — a type of medicine used to treat high blood pressure. Central agonists work by relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body.

cerebrovascular disease — disease of the blood vessels in the brain.

cervical cancer — happens when normal cells in the cervix change into cancer cells. This change normally takes several years to happen, but it can also happen in a very short amount of time. Before the cells turn into cancer, abnormal cells develop on the cervix that can be found by a Pap test. Women generally don't have symptoms of cervical cancer. But when cervical cancer is not found early and spreads deeper into your cervix or to other tissues or organs, you might have pain during sex; bleeding from your vagina after sex, between periods, or after menopause; heavy vaginal discharge that may have a bad odor; heavier bleeding during your period; or a menstrual period that lasts longer than normal. Human papillomavirus (HPV), a group of viruses, can cause abnormal changes on the cervix that can lead to cervical cancer. HPV is very common, and you can get it through sexual contact with another person who has HPV.

cervical mucus --- the opening to the uterus is referred to as the cervix. It produces mucus that is normally thick, then becomes thins at the time of ovulation to help with the transport and survival of sperm.

cervix — the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The cervix forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body.

cesarean (C-section) — procedure where the baby is delivered through an abdominal incision.

chemotherapy — treatment with anticancer drugs

chlamydia — a common sexually transmitted disease (STD). Most people have no symptoms, but chlamydia can cause serious damage a women's reproductive organs. When a woman does have symptoms, they may include thin vaginal discharge and other symptoms similar to gonorrhea like burning when urinating. Long-term irritation may cause lower abdominal pain, inflammation of the pelvic organs, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

cleft lip and palate — congenital abnormalities (present at birth) that affect the upper lip and the hard and soft palate of the mouth. Features range from a small notch in the lip to a complete fissure, or groove, extending into the roof of the mouth and nose. These features may occur separately or together.

cholesterol — a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body. It helps make cell membranes, some hormones, and vitamin D. The liver makes all the cholesterol a person's body needs, so eating too much from animal foods like meats and whole milk dairy products can make your cholesterol go up.

chorionic villus sampling (CVS) — If necessary this test is performed between 10 and 12 weeks of pregnancy and can indicate the same chromosomal abnormalities and genetic disorders as amniocentesis can. It also can detect the baby's sex and risk of spina bifida.

chronic — long lasting condition.

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) — a complex disorder characterized by extreme fatigue that lasts six months or longer, and does not improve with rest or is worsened by physical or mental activity. Other symptoms can include weakness, muscle pain, impaired memory and/or mental concentration, and insomnia. The cause is unknown.

cirrhosis — the result of chronic liver disease, where the liver is scarred and no longer functions properly. This causes many complications, including build up of fluid in the abdomen, bleeding disorders, increased pressure in the blood vessels and brain function disorders.

clomiphene citratate --- a commonly used fertility drug in women, occasionally prescribed for men with poor sperm quality. The drug may work by increasing testosterone levels to improve sperm. Unfortunately, it only works in 40 percent of all cases.

chlamydia --- a sexually transmitted disease that may cause fallopian tube scarring or blockage. It is responsible for up to 50 percent of all pelvic inflammatory infections.

chlamydia antibody test --- a blood test used to determine previous exposure to chlamydia.

clomiphene citrate --- a commonly prescribed fertility drug that works by binding to the estrogen receptor causing increased release of FSH. Pregnancy rates with Clomid and IVI are approximately 5-10%, of which 8% are twins. FSH stimulates specialized cells in the ovary to produce estrogen which results in an increased number of oocytes (eggs)

coercion — To force someone to do something that they do not want to do.

colon cancer — cancer in the inner lining of the colon, or the part of the large intestine that serves to remove water from digested food and let the remaining material, or stool, move through it to leave the body. Most, if not all, of these cancers develop from growths in the colon called polyps. Removal of these precancerous can prevent colon cancer.

colonoscopy — a diagnostic procedure in which a flexible tube with a light source in inserted into the colon (large intestine or large bowel) through the anus to view all sections of the colon for abnormalities.

colostrum — thick, yellowish fluid secreted from breast during pregnancy, and the first few days after childbirth before the onset of mature breast milk. Also called "first milk," it provides nutrients and protection against infectious diseases.

colposcopy — procedure that uses a special microscope (called a colposcope) to look into the vagina and to look very closely at the cervix.

condom — a barrier method of birth control. There are both male and female condoms. The male condom is a sheath placed over an erect penis before sex that prevents pregnancy by blocking the passage of sperm. A female condom also is a sheath, but is inserted into the vagina to block the passage of sperm.

congenital heart disease — abnormalities of the heart's structure and function caused by abnormal or disordered heart development before birth.

connective tissue — a type of body tissue that supports other tissues and binds them together. Connective tissue provides support in the breast.

convulsion — also known as a seizure. An uncontrollable contraction of muscles that can result in sudden movement or loss of control.

coronary artery disease — also called coronary heart disease. It is the most common type of heart disease that results from atherosclerosis - the gradual buildup of plaques in the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that bring blood to the heart. This disease develops slowly and silently, over decades. It can go virtually unnoticed until it produces a heart attack.

corpus luteum --- responsible for progesterone production in the ovary after ovulation has occurred. It helps prepare the uterine lining for implantation. It appears as a cyst on the ovary and regresses if pregnancy does not occur. Otherwise, it continues to produce progesterone until the 10-12th week of pregnancy when the placenta takes over progesterone production.

counselor — usually has a master's degree in Counseling and has completed a supervised internship.

cryptorchidism --- testicles that are not descended into the scrotal sac.

cryopreservation --- the process of freezing extra embryos from a couple’s ART cycle for potential future use.

cystic fibrosis (CF) — one of the most common serious genetic (inherited) diseases. One out of every 400 couples is at risk for having children with CF. CF causes the body to make abnormal secretions leading to mucous build-up. CF mucous build-up can impair organs such as the pancreas, the intestine and the lungs.

debilitating — impairs the vitality and strength of a person.

decongestants — medications that treat cough and stuffy nose by shrinking swollen membranes in the nose and making it easier to breath.

dehydration — excessive loss of body water that the body needs to carry on normal functions at an optimal level. Signs include increasing thirst, dry mouth, weakness or lightheadedness (particularly if worse on standing), and a darkening of the urine or a decrease in urination.

depression — term used to describe an emotional state involving sadness, lack of energy and low self-esteem.

diabetes — a disease in which blood glucose (blood sugar) levels are above normal. Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is the most common form of diabetes.

diaphragmbirth control device made of a thin flexible disk, usually made of rubber, that is designed to cover the cervix to prevent the entry of sperm during sexual intercourse.

diminished ovarian reserve --- a diagnosed condition which means the ability of the ovary to produce eggs is reduced. The reasons may either be congenital, medical, surgical causes or advanced maternal age (older than 40).

diuretics — a type of medication sometimes called "water pills" because they work in the kidney and flush excess water and sodium from the body.

DNA test — a lab test in which a patient's DNA is tested. DNA is a molecule that has a person's genetic information and is found in every cell in a person's body.

donor egg cycle --- an embryo is formed from the egg of one woman (the donor) and then transferred to another woman who is unable to use her own eggs (the recipient). All parental rights are relinquished by the donor.

donor embryo --- an embryo that is donated by a couple who previously underwent ART treatment and had extra embryos available. All parental rights are relinquished by the donor couple.

donor sperm --- sperm that has been donated (known or anonymously). This option is considered in cases of men with no sperm or very few sperm. Commercial sperm banks screen prospective donors using a battery of genetic tests. Prospective donors also are screened for sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. Physical, medical and personal characteristics are provided to help match various traits.

donor oocytes --- eggs donated to help achieve pregnancy in patients who have lost their ovaries, have premature ovarian failure or are at an advanced maternal age. Donors may be known to the recipient or anonymous.

down syndrome — Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause for mild to moderate mental retardation and related medical problems. It is caused by a chromosomal abnormality. For an unknown reason, a change in cell growth results in 47 instead of the usual 46 chromosomes. This extra chromosome changes the orderly development of the body and brain.

ductules — small milk ducts in the breast leading to the mammary or lactiferous ducts.

eating disorder — eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, involve serious problems with eating. This could include an extreme decrease of food or severe overeating, as well as feelings of distress and concern about body shape or weight.

ectopic pregnancy — a pregnancy that is not in the uterus. It happens when a fertilized egg settles and grows in a place other than the inner lining of the uterus. Most happen in the fallopian tube, but can happen in the ovary, cervix, or abdominal cavity.

egg --- a female reproductive cell, also called an oocyte or ovum.

egg donation --- the process in which one woman allows her eggs to be collected and used to help another woman get pregnant.

egg retrieval (also called oocyte retrieval) --- a procedure to collect the eggs contained in the ovarian follicles.

egg transfer (also called oocyte transfer) --- The procedure of transferring retrieved eggs into a woman’s fallopian tubes through laparoscopy, used only in GIFT.

electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) — an external, noninvasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart.

electrojaculation --- electrical stimulation of nerves that control ejaculation. Used to obtain semen from men with spinal cord injuries.

electrolyte imbalance — when the amounts of sodium and potassium in the body become too much or too little.

embryo — a period during pregnancy where the baby has rapid growth, and the main external features begin to take form.

embryo donation --- the process in which a couple give away their embryos to be used by another woman so that she can become pregnant.

embryo transfer --- the procedure of placing an embryo into a woman’s uterus through the cervix after in vitro fertilization (IVF). During the process of zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), the embryos are placed in a woman’s fallopian tube.

endometrial cancer — cancer that develops from the endometrium, or the inner lining of the uterus (womb).

endometriosis — a condition in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows in other areas of the body, usually inside the abdominal cavity, but acts as if it were inside the uterus. Blood shed monthly from the misplaced tissue has no place to go, and tissues surrounding the area of endometriosis may become inflamed or swollen. This can produce scar tissue. Symptoms include painful menstrual cramps that can be felt in the abdomen or lower back, or pain during or after sexual activity, irregular bleeding, and infertility.

endometrial biopsy --- uterine lining cells obtained through an office procedure, allowing the pathologist to directly determine the hormonal effects of progesterone. An inadequate amount of progesterone may lead to a condition known as luteal phase deficiency, which can cause infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss.

endoscopy — a diagnostic procedure in which a thin, flexible tube is introduced through the mouth or rectum to view parts of the digestive tract.

engorgement — condition in which breasts become overly full of milk. Engorged breasts may feel swollen, hard, and painful. Engorgement can lead to blocked milk ducts.

epididymis --- the collection of tubes that store sperm after they have left the testicle but before they have entered the ejaculatory duct (vas deferens), where sperm mature and acquire motility and fertilization potential.

epidural — During labor a woman may be offered an epidural, where a needle is inserted into the epidural space at the end of the spine, to numb the lower body and reduce pain. This allows a woman to have more energy and strength for the end stage of labor, when it is time to push the baby out of the birth canal.

epilepsy — a physical disorder that involves recurrent seizures. It is caused by sudden changes in how the brain works.

episiotomy— This is a procedure where an incision is made in the perineum (area between the vagina and the anus) to make the vaginal opening larger in order to prevent the area from tearing during delivery.

erectile dysfunction — inability to achieve and keep a penile erection.

esophagus — tube that connects the throat with the stomach.

estrogen — a group of female hormones that are responsible for the development of breasts and other secondary sex characteristics in women. Estrogen is produced by the ovaries and other body tissues. Estrogen, along with progesterone, is important in preparing a woman's body for pregnancy.

fallopian tubes — part of the female reproductive system, these tubes carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus (or womb).

Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) — a federal regulation that allows eligible employees to take up to 12 work weeks of unpaid leave during any 12 month period for the serious health condition of the employee, parent, spouse or child, or for pregnancy or care of a newborn child, or for adoption or foster care of a child.

fatigue — a feeling of lack of energy, weariness or tiredness.

fatty tissue — connective tissue that contains stored fat. Also referred to as adipose tissue. Fatty tissue in the breast protects the breast from injury.

feces — waste eliminated from the bowels.

fertilization --- the penetration of the egg by the sperm and the resulting combining of genetic material that develops into an embryo.

fetus --- the unborn offspring from the eighth week after conception to the moment of birth.

fever — body temperature is raised above normal and is usually a sign of infection or illness.

flat nipple — a nipple that cannot be compressed outward, does not protrude or become erect when stimulated or cold.

follicle — each month, an egg develops inside the ovary in a fluid filled pocket called a follicle. This follicle releases the egg into the fallopian tube.

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) — a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, it helps control the menstrual cycle and the production of eggs by the ovaries.

fresh eggs, sperm, or embryos --- eggs, sperm, or embryos that have not been frozen. However, fresh embryos may have been conceived using either fresh or frozen sperm.

fimbria --- finger-like structures at the end of the fallopian tube that help pick up the egg from the ovary after ovulation.

fimbrioplasty --- surgical procedure to open up the constricted end of a fallopian tube.

follicle --- a fluid-filled sac on the surface of the ovary in which the maturing egg (oocyte) grows. It produces estrogen until release of the egg, when it becomes the corpus luteum and secretes progesterone.

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) --- in females, a gonadotropin (pituitary hormone) that stimulates estrogen production in the ovary and matures an oocyte. In males FSH stimulates testosterone production in the testicle.

frozen embryo cycle --- an ART cycle in which frozen (cryopreserved) embryos are thawed and transferred to the woman.

galactosemia — a condition where the body is not able to process galactose (a sugar), which makes up half of the sugar (called lactose) found in milk. When galactose levels become high, body organs and the central nervous system can be damaged. In newborns, the condition is found when first breastfeeding and can cause jaundice and other problems.

gamete --- a reproductive cell, either a sperm or an egg.

Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer (GIFT) --- n ART procedure that involves retrieving a woman’s eggs from her body and then placing them in her fallopian tubes with sperm where they will hopefully join together.

gastrointestinal — a term that refers to the stomach and the intestines or bowels.

GER (gastroesophageal reflux) — also called acid reflux, a condition where the contents of the stomach regurgitates (or backs up) into the esophagus (food pipe), causing discomfort.

Gestational carrier (also called a gestational surrogate): A woman who carries an embryo that was formed from the egg of another woman. The gestational carrier usually has a contractual obligation to return the infant to its intended parents.

Gestational sac --- a fluid-filled structure that develops within the uterus early in pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, a gestational sac contains a developing fetus.

GIFT (gamete intrafallopian transfer) --- an ART procedure that involves removing eggs from the woman’s ovary, combining them with sperm, and using a laparoscope to place the unfertilized eggs and sperm into the woman’s fallopian tube through small incisions in her abdomen.

glandular tissue — body tissue that produces and releases one or more substances for use in the body. Some glands produce fluids that affect tissues or organs. Others produce hormones or participate in blood production. In the breast, glandular tissue is involved in the production of milk.

goiter — enlargement of the thyroid gland that is not associated with inflammation or cancer.

gonad --- an ovary or testis.

gonadotropin --- a hormone (FSH, LH or hCG) that stimulates the ovaries or testes. These can be administered in the form of injections to stimulate the ovaries to facilitate follicle growth and/or induce ovulation. Trade names include Follistim (FSH), Gonal F, Repronex, Bravelle, Pergonal, Pregnyl (hCG), Profasi (hCG) and Novarel (HCG).

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) --- the hypothalamic hormone that stimulates the pituitary to release LH and FSH. It is used in IVF to prevent the body from spontaneously triggering ovulation (Lupron). It is also used to treat endometriosis and to shrink the size of fibroids.

gonorrhea — a sexually transmitted disease that often has no symptoms. However, some women have pain or burning when urinating; yellowish and sometimes bloody vaginal discharge; bleeding between menstrual periods; heavy bleeding with periods; or pain when having sex. Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems like pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).

hamster-oocyte penetration test --- an SPA (Sperm Penetration Assay) that evaluates the ability of human sperm to penetrate an ovum. Sperm are incubated with hamster eggs, and normal sperm will penetrate an egg. If no penetration occurs, this correlates in our laboratory with a poor prognosis of spontaneous fertilization. The ICSI procedure can then circumvent this situation.

hemorrhoids — veins around the anus or lower rectum that are swollen and inflamed.

hepatitis B — a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The virus, which is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. You get hepatitis B by direct contact with the blood or body fluids of an infected person; for instance, you can become infected by having sex or sharing needles with an infected person. A baby can get hepatitis B from an infected mother during childbirth.

hepatitis C — a liver disease, caused by a virus, that makes the liver swells and stops it from working correctly.

high blood pressure — also known as hypertension. A cardiovascular disease which means the blood vessels become tight and constricted, forcing your heart to pump harder to move blood through your body. These changes cause the blood to press on the vessel walls with greater force, which can damage blood vessels and organs, including the heart, kidneys, eyes, and brain. Blood pressure is considered high if it is greater than 140 over 90 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury).

HIV — see HIV/AIDS infection

HIV/AIDS infection — HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV infection can produce no symptoms for many years. When certain symptoms develop, a person has AIDS. AIDS is a syndrome, or group of diseases, that can be fatal. HIV/AIDS infection is life-long, there is no cure.

hormone — substance produced by one tissue and conveyed by the bloodstream to another to effect a function of the body, such as growth or metabolism.

hormone replacement therapy (HRT) — replaces the hormones that a woman's ovaries stop making at the time of menopause, easing symptoms like hot flashes and vaginal dryness. HRT combines the female hormones estrogen and progesterone and is usually given in pill form. [A recent study has found that HRT can cause more harm than good in healthy women, and can increase a woman's risk for breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, and pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lung). Talk with your health care provider to find out if HRT is best for you and about other ways to control menopause symptoms.]

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) --- a hormone secreted by the embryo that maintains corpus luteum function when pregnancy occurs. It is also used like an LH hormone to trigger ovulation.

human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) --- FSH and LH hormones extracted from the urine of postmenopausal women and then injected to stimulate follicle recruitment and growth within the ovaries.

hyperprolactinemia --- overproduction of prolactin, the hormone responsible for breast milk production. It may be treated with bromocriptine (Parlodel or Dostinex). If left untreated, it can lead to ovulatory dysfunction (missed and/or irregular menses).

hypothalamus --- an area in the brain responsible for release of GnRH (Gonadatropin Releasing Hormone), as well as other hormones.

hypertension — see high blood pressure.

hypogonadism --- a disorder affecting men that can lead to infertility. It is caused by a lack of GnRH and therefore a testosterone deficiency.

hypospadias --- a structural abnormality of the penile shaft resulting in an opening on the underside. Abnormal urine flow is a common indicator of this condition.

hysterectomy — surgery to remove the uterus.

hysterosalpingogram --- a test done with x-ray and dye to assess the uterine cavity and patency of the fallopian tubes. A special dye is injected through the cervix and flows into the uterine cavity and through the tubes. If the tubes are not blocked, the dye will spill out of the tubes into the abdomen indicating that the tubes are open. The uterine cavity also can be examined to rule out uterine size or shape abnormalities.

hysteroscopy --- a diagnostic test using a very small camera (hysteroscopy) to assess the inner walls of the uterine cavity for fibroids, polyps, and scar tissue. A hysteroscopy is inserted into the uterus through the cervix from the vagina to directly visualize the inside of the uterus. Removal of fibroids, scar tissue, and polyps may be performed in this way without having to operate on the abdomen.

ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) --- aprocedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg; this procedure is most commonly used to overcome male infertility problems.

immune system — a complex system in the body that recognizes and responds to potentially harmful substances, like infections, in order to protect the body.

implantation --- the process whereby a fertilized egg (zygote) attaches to the uterine lining.

impotence --- also known as erectile dysfunction, impotence occurs when there is impaired blood flow to the penis, thereby preventing a man from achieving and sustaining an erection. Occasional impotence is normal but a prolonged period of impotence should be investigated.

incest — sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry; also: the statutory crime of such a relationship

induced abortion --- a surgical or other medical procedure used to end a pregnancy.

infertility — A condition in which a couple has problems conceiving, or getting pregnant, after one year of regular sexual intercourse without using any birth control methods. Infertility can be caused by a problem with the man or the woman, or both.

inflammation — used to describe an area on the body that is swollen, red, hot, and in pain.

inflammatory bowel disease — long-lasting problems that cause irritation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common disorders are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

inhaled medicines — administered by having the user breath in the substance.

insomnia — not being able to sleep.

insulin — one of many hormones that helps the body turn the food we eat into energy and helps store energy to be used later. People with diabetes mellitus, a condition in which the body does not make enough insulin, might need to inject themselves with insulin to help their bodies’ cells work properly.

interferon — a group of proteins with a carbohydrate component, which is produced by different cell types in response to an exposure of a virus, bacterium, or parasite, that prevents replication (of the virus, bacterium, or parasite) in newly infected cells.

interstitial cystitis — a long-lasting condition also known as painful bladder syndrome or frequency-urgency-dysuria syndrome. The wall of the bladder becomes inflamed or irritated, which affects the amount of urine the bladder can hold and causes scarring, stiffening, and bleeding in the bladder.

intestines — also known as the bowels, or the long, tube-like organ in the human body that completes digestion or the breaking down of food. They consist of the small intestine and the large intestine.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) --- the process in which sperm are removed directly from a man’s testicles and a single sperm is directly injected into a woman’s egg.

Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) --- also known as artificial insemination, IUI is the process in which sperm is deposited directly into a woman’s uterus using a catheter.

intrauterine device — a small birth control device that is placed inside a woman's uterus by a health care provider, which prevents pregnancy by changing the environment of the uterus (or womb).

intravenous analgesic — An analgesic is a drug that relieves pain. During labor, a woman can be given pain-relieving drugs intravenously (through a tube inserted into her vein).

inverted nipple — a nipple that retracts, rather than protrudes when the areola is compressed.

in vitro --- Latin for “in glass.” A term referring to In Vitro Fertilization or fertilization occurring in a dish as opposed to in the body.

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) --- a well-known method of ART, IVF involves a woman taking fertility drugs to stimulate ovulation. Her eggs are then retrieved by a doctor, combined with sperm and transferred back to her uterus after developing for a few days in a laboratory.

ischemia — decrease in the blood supply to a an organ, tissue, or other part caused by the narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels.

isolate wash --- a complex wash used to separate sperm for insemination.

IUI (intrauterine insemination) --- a medical procedure that involves placing sperm into a woman’s uterus to facilitate fertilization. IUI is not considered an ART procedure because it does not involve the manipulation of eggs.

IVF (in vitro fertilization) --- an ART procedure that involves removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries and fertilizing them outside her body. The resulting embryos are then transferred into the woman’s uterus through the cervix.

jaundice — a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes, caused by too much bilirubin in the blood. While not a disease, jaundice can signal a liver or gallbladder problem. Newborns can develop jaundice, which is only temporary and goes away.

Varitype --- evaluation of chromosomes for their number, sizes and shapes. Abnormalities may generate explanations for recurrent pregnancy loss, premature ovarian failure, primary amenorrhea and low or absent sperm counts.

kidney stones — hard mass developed from crystals that separate from the urine and build up on the inner surfaces of the kidney.

lactation — breastfeeding, or the secretion of breast milk.

lactiferous sinuses — enlarged portion of the mammary or milk duct where breast milk pools during breastfeeding. The sinuses are behind the areola and connect to the nipple.

lactose — a sugar found in milk and milk products like cheese, cream, and butter.

lamaze — a philosophy of giving birth developed by Dr. Ferdinand Lamaze. The goal of Lamaze classes is to increase women's confidence in their ability to give birth. Lamaze classes teach women simple coping strategies for labor, including focused breathing. But Lamaze also teaches that breathing techniques are just one of the many things that help women in labor. Movement, positioning, labor support, massage, relaxation, hydrotherapy and the use of heat and cold are some others.

laparoscopy --- an outpatient surgical technique in which a 5 or 10 mm narrow, lighted instrument is placed through the belly button to allow direct visualization of the ovaries, uterus, fallopian tubes and peritoneal cavity. Various laser and microsurgical procedures can be performed through the laparoscope using additional small incisions at the pubic hairline.

laparotomy --- a surgical incision through the abdomen, typically 4-6 inches in length to allow direct visualization and correction of the reproductive structures. Typically recommended when removing large fibroids.

lesion — an infected or diseased area of skin.

let-down reflex, or milk-ejection reflex — A conditioned reflex ejecting milk from the alveoli through the ducts to the sinuses of the breast and the nipple.

libido — sexual drive.

live birth --- the delivery of one or more babies with any signs of life.

local analgesic — An analgesic is a drug that relieves pain. Pain-relieving drugs can be given to a woman during labor and delivery locally through a needle inserted into a muscle (intra-muscular) or under the skin (subcutaneous).

luteal phase defect — problems with the uterine lining that can affect a woman’s ability to get pregnant and have a successful pregnancy.

Luteal phase deficiency --- the uterine lining fails to develop appropriately after ovulation. This condition is often treated with progesterone or ovulation induction medications.

luteinizing hormone — a hormone that triggers ovulation and stimulates the corpus luteum (empty follicle) to make progesterone.

Lyme disease — a bacterial illness caused by a bacterium called a "spirochete" that is transmitted to humans from the bite of a deer tick. It can cause abnormalities in the skin, joints, heart and nervous system.

insulin— the almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infection and disease. Lymph tissue in the breast helps remove waste.malignant — cancerous

male factor --- Any cause of infertility due to low sperm count or problems with sperm function that make it difficult for a sperm to fertilize an egg under normal conditions.

mammary ducts — ducts in the breast that carry milk to the lactiferous sinuses and the nipple.

mastitis — a condition that occurs mostly in breastfeeding women, causing a hard spot on the breast that can be sore or uncomfortable. It is caused by infection from bacteria that enters the breast through a break or crack in the skin on the nipple or by a plugged milk duct.

meningitis — infection which causes inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

menopause — the transition in a woman's life when production of the hormone estrogen in her body falls permanently to very low levels, the ovaries stop producing eggs, and menstrual periods stop for good.

menstruating — The blood flow from the uterus that happens about every 4 weeks in a woman.

microdeletion y chromosome --- an area of the y chromosome that is missing or partially missing. This condition can cause low sperm counts and/or male infertility, and can be inheritied by a male offspring.

microsurgery --- fine, delicate surgery requiring magnification often through the use of a microscope. It is used to reconnect tied tubes after sterilization or repair blocked fallopian tubes. Also used for sperm extraction.

miscarriage — an unplanned loss of a pregnancy. Also called a spontaneous abortion.

montgomery glands — also called Montgomery's glands or areolar glands. These small glands enlarge during pregnancy and breastfeeding and look somewhat like pimples on the areola. They secrete oils that lubricate the nipple.

multi fetal pregnancy reduction --- a procedure used to decrease the number of fetuses a woman carries and improve the chances that the remaining fetuses will develop into healthy infants. Multi fetal reductions that occur naturally are referred to as spontaneous reductions. This procedure is also known as selective reduction.

multiple factors, female only --- this diagnostic category means that more than one female infertility cause was diagnosed.

multiple factors, female and male --- a diagnostic category used when one or more female infertility causes and male factor infertility are diagnosed together.

multiple-infant birth --- a pregnancy that results in the birth of more than one infant.

multiple-fetus pregnancy --- a pregnancy with two or more fetuses, determined by the number of fetal hearts observed on an ultrasound performed early in pregnancy.

multiple sclerosis — also called MS, a disorder of the brain and spinal cord that causes decreased nerve function associated with the formation of scars on the covering of nerve cells. Symptoms range from numbness to paralysis and blindness. A person with MS slowly loses control over his or her body.

mumps — a sudden illness caused by the virus paramyxovirus. It is spread by direct contact as well as by airborne droplets and saliva. Since 1967 the mumps vaccine (MMR, or measles, mumps and rubella) has helped cases decline in the United States. Symptoms include inflamed salivary glands (causing a child to have full cheeks like a chipmunk), inflamed tissues of the central nervous system (brain and spine), and an inflamed pancreas. Mumps in a child who has gone through adolescence tends to affect the ovary and the testes, which can lead to infertility.

mycoplasma --- an organism that has been associated with some types of infertility and miscarriages.

nerve(s) — cells in the human body that are the building blocks of the nervous system (the system that records and transmits information chemically and electrically within a person). Nerve cells, or neurons, are made up of a nerve cell body and various extensions from the cell body that receive and transmit impulses from and to other nerves and muscles. Nerve tissue in the breast makes breasts sensitive to touch, allowing the baby's sucking to stimulate the let-down or milk-ejection reflex and milk production.

neural tube defect — A major birth defect caused by abnormal development of the neural tube, or the structure in an embryo which develops into the brain and spinal cord. Neural tube defects are among the most common birth defects that cause infant death and serious disability. The most common neural tube defects are anencephaly, spina bifida, and encephalocele. In anencephaly the skull and most or all of the brain does not develop. Encephalocele is a hernia of part of the brain and of the membranes covering it. Spina bifida is an opening in the column encasing the spinal cord.

nipple — the protruding part of the breast that extends and becomes firmer upon stimulation. In breastfeeding, milk travels from the milk sinuses through the nipple to the baby.

nipple shield — an artificial latex or silicone nipple used over the mother's nipple during nursing.

nurse-midwife — A nurse who has undergone special training and has received certification on birthing (labor and delivery). Nurse-midwifes can perform most of the same tasks as physicians and have emergency physician backup when they deliver a baby.

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) — An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from obsessive thoughts and compulsive actions, such as cleaning, checking, counting, or hoarding. The person becomes trapped in a pattern of repetitive thoughts and behaviors that are senseless and distressing but very hard to stop. OCD can be mild or severe, but if severe and left untreated, can stop a person from being able to function at work, at school, or even in the home.

occupational therapy — therapy aimed to restore a person's basic skills, such as bathing and dressing.

oligospermia --- less than 20 million total sperm.

oligoasthenospermia --- poorly moving and low numbers of sperm.

oligomenorrhea --- infrequent menses.

oocyte --- the female reproductive cell, also called an egg.

oral medicines — administered by mouth.

osteoporosis — a bone disease that is characterized by progressive loss of bone density and thinning of bone tissue, causing bones to break easily.

ovarian cancer — cancer of the ovary or ovaries, which are organs in the female reproductive system that make eggs and hormones. Most ovarian cancers develop from the cells that cover the outer surface of the ovary, called epithelial cells.

ovarian monitoring --- the use of ultrasound and/or blood or urine tests to monitor follicle development and hormone production.

ovarian reserve — health of the ovaries and eggs. It is an important factor in female fertility and decreases with age.

ovarian stimulation --- the use of medications to stimulate the ovaries to develop follicles and eggs.

insulin— part of a woman's reproductive system, the ovaries produce her eggs. Each month, through the process called ovulation, the ovaries release eggs into the fallopian tubes, where they travel to the uterus, or womb. If an egg is fertilized by a man's sperm, a woman becomes pregnant and the egg grows and develops inside the uterus. If the egg is not fertilize, the egg and the lining of the uterus is shed during a woman's monthly menstrual period.

ovulation — the release of a single egg from a follicle that developed in the ovary. It usually occurs regularly, around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle.

ovulation induction --- medications/hormones such as Clomiphene Citrate or gonadotropins are used to stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and induce ovulation. It is used in conditions, such as polycystic ovaries, oligomenorrhea, anovulation, endometriosis and male factor infertility.

ovulation method — a method used by couples trying to get pregnant, in which they have intercourse just before or after ovulation.

ovulation predictor kit --- home urine test for LH, which is the signal to release an egg.

ovulatory dysfunction --- a diagnostic category used when a woman’s ovaries are not producing eggs normally. It includes polycystic ovary syndrome and multiple ovarian cysts.

oxytocin — a hormone that increases during pregnancy and acts on the breast to help produce the milk-ejection reflex. Oxytocin also causes uterine contractions.

panic disorder — An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from sudden attacks of fear and panic. The attacks may occur without a known reason, but many times they are triggered by events or thoughts that produce fear in the person, such as taking an elevator or driving. Symptoms of the attacks include rapid heartbeat, chest sensations, shortness of breath, dizziness, tingling, and feeling anxious.

pap test — this test finds changes on the cervix. To do a Pap test, the doctor uses a small brush to take cells from the cervix.

Parkinson's disease — disease affecting the part of the brain associated with movement. Characterized by shaking and difficulty with movement coordination.

pelvic exam — during this exam, the doctor or nurse practitioner looks for redness, swelling, discharge, or sores on the outside and inside of the vagina. A Pap test tests for cell changes on the cervix. The doctor or nurse practitioner will also put two fingers inside the vagina and press on the abdomen with the other hand to check for cysts or growths on the ovaries and uterus. STD tests may also be done.

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) — an infection of the female reproductive organs that are above the cervix, such as the fallopian tubes and ovaries. It is the most common and serious problem caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PID can cause ectopic pregnancies, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and other serious problems. Symptoms include fever, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, extreme pain, and vaginal bleeding.

peptic ulcers — a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (beginning of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers are common -- one in 10 Americans develops an ulcer at some time in his or her life. One cause of peptic ulcer is bacterial infection, but some ulcers are caused by long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), like aspirin and ibuprofen. In a few cases, cancerous tumors in the stomach or pancreas can cause ulcers. Peptic ulcers are not caused by stress or eating spicy food.

pituitary --- the master gland situated at the base of the brain. It secretes FSH and LH, as well as prolactin and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone).

perinatal depressiondepression that occurs during pregnancy or within a year after delivery

peritoneal cavity --- the abdominal cavity.

peripartum depressiondepression after pregnancy

peripheral neuropathy — classification of disorders that involve damaged or destroyed nerves. These disorders do not include the nerves of the brain or spinal cord.

peripheral vascular disease (also called peripheral arterial disease (PAD)) — A common disorder in which the arteries supplying oxygen rich blood from the heart to a limb (typically one or both legs) are blocked. As a result, the organs do not get enough blood flow for normal function. The most common cause of PAD is atherosclerosis

pesticides — any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling any pest. It also includes herbicides, fungicides, and various other substances used to control pests.

phobias — An anxiety disorder in which a person suffers from an unusual amount of fear of a certain activity or situation.

phototherapy — treatment with light. Prescription phototherapy exposes the baby's skin to special fluorescent lights. In mild cases of jaundice, exposing the baby's skin to sunlight (taking care to avoid sunburn) is sometimes recommended.

pituitary gland — a small gland in the head that makes hormones that control other glands and many body functions including growth.

placenta — During pregnancy, a temporary organ joining the mother and fetus. The placenta transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus, and permits the release of carbon dioxide and waste products from the fetus. The placenta is expelled during the birth process with the fetal membranes.

plaque — a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances that accumulate in the walls of the arteries.

plugged (milk) duct — when the small milk ducts in the breast become blocked, or plugged. This is often caused by mastitis.

pneumonia — inflammation of the lungs. Causes of pneumonia include bacteria and viruses.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) --- a hormonal imbalance resulting in lack of ovulation, irregular periods and infertility. It has the characteristic appearance on an ultrasound of many small cysts in the ovary. Often also associated with insulin resistance.

post-coital test --- cervical mucus is examined within 12 hours of intercourse in the middle of the cycle. Sperm number, movement and cervical mucus quality are graded.

pornography — pictures, videos, and written material that openly shows sexual situations and causes sexual excitement.

postpartum depression (PPD) — a serious condition that requires treatment from a health care provider. With this condition, feelings of the baby blues (feeling sad, anxious, afraid, or confused after having a baby) do not go away or get worse.

post-traumatic stress disorder — a psychological condition that can happen when a person sees or experiences something traumatic, such as rape, murder, torture, or wartime combat. A person can have many symptoms including flashbacks (re-living the event), nightmares, fatigue, anxiety, and forgetfulness. A person can also withdraw from family and friends.

preeclampsia — Also known as Toxemia, it is a condition that can occur in a woman in the second half of her pregnancy that can cause serious problems for both her and the baby. It causes high blood pressure, protein in the urine, blood changes and other problems.

prematurely — before the expected time.

Premature Ovarian Failure (POF) --- loss or dysfunction of the egg follicle causing a woman to have irregular periods or no periods at all.

pregnancy (clinical) --- a pregnancy documented by ultrasound that shows a gestational sac in the uterus. For ART data collection purposes, pregnancy is defined as a clinical pregnancy rather than a chemical pregnancy (i.e., a positive pregnancy test).

pregnancy symptoms --- a group of physical changes that occur in a woman's body related to pregnancy and the increased levels of the hCG hormone.

Pre implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) --- a technique to determine whether an embryo has a chromosomally abnormal karyotype or if a specific disease is carried. One cell is removed from an embryo at the 6-8-cell stage and analyzed. Non-affected embryos may then be replaced to prevent transmission of that specific condition.

primary infertility --- the inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse in couples who have no children.

primary lactase deficiency — when a person is born with the inability to digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products. Lactose can't be digested because there is not enough of an enzyme, called lactase, in the body. Consuming milk and dairy products causes diarrhea, bloating, gas, and discomfort. This deficiency can also develop over time, as the amount of lactase in the body decreases with age.

progesterone — a female hormone produced by the ovaries. Progesterone, along with estrogen, prepares the uterus (womb) for a possible pregnancy each month and supports the fertilized egg if conception occurs. Progesterone also helps prepare the breasts for milk production and breastfeeding.

progestin — a hormone that works by causing changes in the uterus. When taken with the hormone estrogen, progestin works to prevent thickening of the lining of the uterus. This is helpful for women who are in menopause and are taking estrogen for their symptoms. Progestins also are prescribed to regulate the menstrual cycle, treat unusual stopping of the menstrual periods, help a pregnancy occur or maintain a pregnancy, or treat unusual or heavy bleeding of the uterus. They also can be used to prevent pregnancy, help treat cancer of the breast, kidney, or uterus, and help treat loss of appetite and severe weight or muscle loss.

prolactin — a hormone that increases during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It stimulates the human breast to produce milk. Prolactin also helps inhibit ovulation.

prostate gland — a gland in a man's reproductive system. It makes and stores seminal fluid. This fluid is released to form part of semen.

psoriasis — a chronic (long-lasting) skin disease of scaling and inflammation that mostly affects adults. It occurs when skin cells quickly rise from their origin below the surface of the skin and pile up on the surface before they have a chance to mature. Usually this movement takes about a month, but in psoriasis it may occur in only a few days. Psoriasis results in patches of thick, red (inflamed) skin covered with silvery scales. These patches usually itch or feel sore, and most often occur on the elbows, knees, other parts of the legs, scalp, lower back, face, palms, and soles of the feet, but they can occur on skin anywhere on the body.

psychiatrist — a doctor (M.D.) who treats mental illness. Psychiatrists must receive additional training and serve a supervised residency in their specialty. They can prescribe medications.

psychologist — A clinical psychologist is a professional who treats mental illness, emotional disturbance, and behavior problems. They use talk therapy as treatment, and cannot prescribe medication. A clinical psychologist will have a master's degree (M.A.) or doctorate (Ph.D.) in psychology, and possibly more training in a specific type of therapy.

psychotherapy — counseling or "talk" therapy with a qualified practitioner in which a person can explore difficult, and often painful, emotions and experiences, such as feelings of anxiety, depression, or trauma. It is a process that aims to help the patient become better at making positive choices in his or her life, and to become more self-sufficient. Psychotherapy can be given for an individual or in a group setting.

puberty — time when the body is changing from the body of a child to the body of an adult. This process begins earlier in girls than in boys, usually between ages 8 and 13, and lasts 2 to 4 years.

pudenal block — This procedure anesthetizes, or numbs, the area around the vulva to reduce pain during labor and delivery.

purging — forcing oneself to vomit.

quinine — a medication used to treat malaria (a disease caused by a parasite that lives part of its life in humans and part in mosquitoes).

radiation — treatment using radiation to destroy cancer cells.

radioactive drugs — drugs used to look at the internal organs of the body or to treat certain diseases like cancer.

recominant FSH --- DNA technology, using a host cell to replicate the FSH molecule. Product brand names are Gonal F and Follistim. These medications are injected subcutaneously.

remission — a period of time without symptoms of a chronic condition.

resistant — does not respond.

respite care — care and supervision usually provided by volunteer organizations that provides a person's caregiver some time of rest or relief.

retrograde ejaculation --- a clinical condition in which sperm are not ejaculated in a forward direction and therefore reflux into the bladder. This can occur despite a normal sensation of ejaculation. This condition can be caused by a variety of factors, including diabetes, surgical damage to nerves that lead to the bladder neck and side effects of various medications (e.g. anti-hypertensives such as alpha blockers). Exposure to urine is highly toxic to sperm. Alkalinization of the urine with sodium bicarbonate can help to protect the sperm.

rooting — a reflex that newborn babies have, along with the reflexes for sucking and swallowing. Rooting means turning the head to search for the nipple and milk.

rubella — also called German measles. Rubella virus causes rash, mild fever, and arthritis. If a woman gets rubella while she is pregnant, she could have a miscarriage or her baby could be born with serious birth defects.

salpingostomy --- surgical attempt to create a new opening at the end of a blocked fallopian tube.

schizophrenia — a brain disease that can cause loss of personality, agitation, catatonia (being in a statue-like state), confusion, psychosis (a disorder in which a person is not in touch with reality), unusual behavior, and withdrawal. The illness usually begins in early adulthood. No one knows the exact cause of schizophrenia, but a problem with a gene called COMT has been found to raise the risk of developing it.

secondary infertility --- the inability to conceive a child after a year of unprotected intercourse in couples who have one or more children.

sedative — a drug that calms a person and allows her or him to sleep.

seizures — uncontrollable contractions of muscles that can result in sudden movement or loss of control, also known as convulsions.

self-esteem — How you feel about yourself – how you feel about who you are, the way you act, and how you look. When a person does not think too highly of themselves, she is said to have low self-esteem.

semen — the fluid (which contains sperm) a male releases from his penis when he becomes sexually aroused or has an orgasm.

semen analysis --- analysis of the semen for sperm number, appearance (morphology), motility, volume and viscosity. The presence of a bacterial infection or immature sperm cells may also be determined. A Computer Aided Semen Analysis Machine (CASA) may be used for analysis.

sexual harassment — Sexual advances (like touching, grabbing) or sexual comments (that can be offensive and/or joking) that are not wanted or appropriate. This can happen in the workplace and a person can feel like they have no control over it. They may decide not to deal with it because they fear they will lose their job or not get a raise or promotion.

sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) — diseases that are spread by sexual activity.

sickle cell anemia — a blood disorder passed down from parents to children. It involves problems in the red blood cells. Normal red blood cells are round and smooth and move through blood vessels easily. Sickle cells are hard and have a curved edge. These cells cannot squeeze through small blood vessels. They block the organs from getting blood. Your body destroys sickle red cells quickly, but it can’t make new red blood cells fast enough-- a condition called anemia.

social worker — A licensed clinical social worker (L.C.S.W.) is trained in psychotherapy and helps people with many different mental health and daily living problems to improve overall functioning. Usually has a master's degree in social work (M.S.W.).

sodium — in reference to diet and food, the salt content of food is usually given in terms of "sodium." For instance, the label of a can of soup may list "Sodium 400 mg" per cup. Excess sodium from high sodium foods like french fries is excreted in the urine. Having too much or too little sodium in a person's body can cause the body's cells to not work properly.

speech therapy — therapy aimed to help a person with a speech or language disorder or problem to restore basic speech skills.

sperm --- the male reproductive gamete.

sperm bank --- cryopreserved sperm are stored for use in artificial insemination or donor sperm situations.

sperm donation --- the process in which a man gives a sperm sample to a clinic or sperm bank so that it can be used to artificially inseminate a woman who wishes to be pregnant.

spermicides — chemical jellies, foams, creams, or suppositories, inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse that kill sperm.

sperm washing --- dilution of sperm sample prior to insemination to remove prostaglandin chemicals in the semen that cause contractions of the uterus. This procedure may also be used to remove other debris from the semen.

Spina bifida — Spina bifida is the most common of all birth defects. Its name means "clef spine," or a failure of a fetal spine to close the right way when it is developing before birth. It occurs very early in pregnancy, roughly three to four weeks after conception, before most women know that they are pregnant. Any woman can have an affected pregnancy. Most women who bear a child with Spina bifida have no family history of it.

stethoscope — instrument used by health care professionals to detect sounds produced in the body. Commonly used to listen to your heartbeat to detect any heart-related problems and to listen to your lungs for sounds that they could have fluid inside them.

stillbirth — when a fetus dies during birth, or when the fetus dies during the late stages of pregnancy when it would have been otherwise expected to survive.

stimulated cycle --- an ART cycle in which a woman receives oral or injected fertility drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles.

stroke — sometimes called a "brain attack," is caused by a lack of blood flow to the brain, or bleeding in the brain. A person's speech, writing, balance, sensation, memory, thinking, attention, and learning are some of the areas that can be affected as a result of suffering a stroke.

subcutaneous --- the layer of adipose (fate) under the skin, used for injecting medication.

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) — the diagnosis given for the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that remains unexplained after a complete investigation. Because most cases of SIDS occur when a baby is sleeping in a crib, SIDS is also commonly known as crib death. Most SIDS deaths occur when a baby is between 1 and 4 months of age.

surrogacy --- when a couple asks or hires another woman to carry a child for them. The child may be biologically related to the couple, to the male partner and the surrogate, or be conceived using a donor egg, sperm or embryo.

symptothermal method — a method of pregnancy planning or birth control that combines certain aspects of the calendar, the basal body temperature, and the cervical mucus methods. It takes into account all these factors as well as other symptoms a woman might have, such as slight cramping and breast tenderness.

synthetic — made in a lab and not from a natural source.

systemic lupus erythematosus — an autoimmune disease that can cause inflammation and damage to the joints, skin, kidneys, heart, lungs, blood vessels, and brain.

Tay-Sachs disease — a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance called ganglioside GM2 build up in the nerve cells in the brain and damage the cells. In children, this begins in the fetus early in pregnancy. By the time a child with Tay-Sachs is three or four years old, the nervous system is so badly affected that death usually results by age five.

teratospermia --- abnormally shaped sperm.

testicular biopsy --- removal of a small sample of testicular tissue to study sperm development and production.

Testicular/Epididymal Sperm Aspiration (TESA) --- surgical procedure in which the testicle or epididymis are biopsied for the purposes of obtaining sperm for ICSI. Useful in men with vasectomies, blockages, azoospermia or failed vasectomy reversals.

testicle (testis) — the male sex gland. There are a pair of testes behind the penis in a pouch of skin called the scrotum. The testes make and store sperm, and make the male hormone testosterone.

testosterone --- an androgen hormone produced in the testes that affects sperm production and male sex characteristics. Also found in women, elevated testosterone levels can cause unwanted hair growth and interfere with proper ovulation.

thalassemia — a group of blood diseases, that are inherited, which affect a person's hemoglobin and cause anemia. Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen and nutrients to cells in the body.

thawed embryo cycle --- same as frozen embryo cycle.

thrush — a yeast infection, caused by the fungus Candida albicans, of the mouth and throat. It's hallmark is white patches in the mouth. It can also occur in the gastrointestinal tract and vagina, and causes some types of diaper rash in infants.

thyroid — The thyroid is a small gland in the neck that makes and stores hormones that help regulate heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and the rate at which food is converted into energy.

tonsillitis — inflammation of the tonsils, which are lymph nodes in the back of the mouth at the top of the throat. Tonsils help to filter out bacteria and other microorganisms to prevent infection in the body. When they become overwhelmed by bacterial or viral infection they can become swollen and inflamed.

toxemia — see preeclampsia.

toxoplasmosis — an infection caused by the parasite named Toxoplasma gondii that can invade tissues and damage the brain, especially in a fetus and in a newborn baby. Symptoms include fever, fatigue, headache, swollen lymph glands, and muscle aches and pains. Can be contracted by touching the hands to the mouth after gardening, cleaning a cat's litter box, or anything that came into contact with cat feces; or by eating raw or partly cooked meat, or touching the hands to the mouth after touching raw or undercooked meat.

transient ischemic attack (TIA) — a "mini-stroke" where there is a short-term reduction in blood flow to the brain usually resulting in temporary stoke symptoms. Does not cause damage to the brain, but puts a person at higher risk of having a full stroke.

trichomoniasis — a very common STD in both women and men that is caused by a parasite that is passed from one person to another during sexual contact. It also can be passed through contact with damp, moist objects such as towels or wet clothing. Symptoms include yellow, green, or gray vaginal discharge (often foamy) with a strong odor; discomfort during sex and when urinating; irritation and itching of the genital area; or lower abdominal pain (rare).

trimester — A typical pregnancy is 9 months long. Pregnancy is divided into three time periods, or trimesters, that are each about three months in duration - the firsttrimester, second trimester, and third trimester.

triple screenblood test that indicates if there’s an increased risk of a birth defect, or a condition like Down Syndrome, in the fetus. This test can also show twins.

trisomy 18 — A condition in which a baby is conceived with three copies instead of the normal two copies of chromosome #18. Children with this condition have multiple malformations and mental retardation due to the extra chromosome #18. Some of the problems include: low birth weight, small head, small jaw, malformations of the heart and kidneys, clenched fists with abnormal finger positioning, and malformed feet. The mental retardation is severe. Ninety five percent of children with this condition die before their first birthday.

tubal factor --- a diagnostic category used when the woman's fallopian tubes are blocked or damaged, making it difficult for the egg to be fertilized or for an embryo to travel to the uterus.

ultrasound — a painless, harmless test that uses sound waves to produce images of the organs and structures of the body on a screen. Also called sonography.

umbilical cord — connected to the placenta and provides the transfer of nutrients and waste between the woman and the fetus.

unexplained cause of infertility --- a diagnostic category used when no cause of infertility is found in either the woman or the man.

unstimulated cycle --- an ART cycle in which the woman does not receive drugs to stimulate her ovaries to produce more follicles. Instead, follicles develop naturally.

urethra — the tube that releases urine from the body.

urinalysis — a test that looks at urine to find out its content. Can be used to detect some types of diseases.

urinary tract infection — an infection anywhere in the urinary tract, or organs that collect and store urine and release it from your body (the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra). An infection occurs when microorganisms, usually bacteria from the digestive tract, cling to the urethra (opening to the urinary tract) and begin to multiply.

uterine contractions — During the birthing process, a woman's uterus tightens, or contracts. Contractions can be strong and regular (meaning that they can happen every 5 minutes, every 3 minutes, and so on) during labor until the baby is delivered. Women can have contractions before labor starts; these are not regular and do not progress, or increase in intensity or duration.

uterine factor --- a structural or functional disorder of the uterus that results in reduced fertility.

uterine fibroids — common, benign (noncancerous) tumors that grow in the muscle of the uterus, or womb. Fibroids often cause no symptoms and need no treatment, and they usually shrink after menopause. But sometimes fibroids cause heavy bleeding or pain, and require treatment.

uterine sounding --- a process in which a specialized catheter is gently placed through the cervix and into the uterus to measure the uterus’ depth and position.

uterus — a woman's womb, or the hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen between the bladder and the rectum.

vaccine — medicine that protects the body from the disease.

vagina — The muscular canal that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body. Its walls are lined with mucus membranes and tiny glands that make vaginal secretions.

varicocoele --- an abnormal dilation or torsion of the vein that carries blood from the testes back to the heart. Most commonly occurs on the left side and may cause decreased sperm production by increasing the temperature in the sperm producing cells, decreasing blood flow and oxygenation or changing hormone concentrations.

vas deferens --- the tubule that carries sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct of the penis.

vasectomy --- sterilization procedure in men that involves surgically removing part of the vas deferens.

vasogram --- an x-ray examination of the vas deferens to check for blockage (male counterpart of HSG).

viruses — small microscopic organisms that often cause disease.

voyeurism — looking at sexual acts or naked people, often without their knowledge.

vulva — opening to the vagina.

wheezing — breathing with difficulty, with a whistling noise. Wheezing is a symptom of asthma.

yeast infections — a common infection in women caused by an overgrowth of the fungus Candida. It is normal to have some yeast in your vagina, but sometimes it can overgrow because of hormonal changes in your body, such as during pregnancy, or from taking certain medications, such as antibiotics. Symptoms include itching, burning, and irritation of the vagina; pain when urinating or with intercourse; and cottage cheese-looking vaginal discharge.

ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian transfer) --- an ART procedure in which eggs are collected from a woman’s ovary and fertilized outside her body. A laparoscope is then used to place the resulting zygote (fertilized egg) into the woman’s fallopian tube through a small incision in her abdomen.

zygote --- a fertilized oocyte formed by the fusion of the egg with the sperm

Additional Information

American Pregnancy: Infertility terms to know

INCID: glossary of infertility terms

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